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Jermayl Lund
Jermayl Lund

Skat lernen und üben: Kostenlose Downloads für Anfänger und Fortgeschrittene


Skat: The National Card Game of Germany




Skat is a card game for three players that originated in the early 19th century in Thuringia, Germany. It is considered as Germany's national card game and one of the most popular card games in German-speaking Europe. Skat is a game of skill and strategy that combines elements of Schafkopf, Tarot, and L'Hombre. It is played with a 32-card deck and involves bidding, choosing a game type, playing tricks, and scoring points. In this article, we will explore the history, rules, and tips of this fascinating game.




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Introduction




Skat is a game for three players, but usually four participate, with each player sitting out a turn as dealer. The dealer shuffles and then the player to their right cuts the deck. The dealer deals 3 cards to each player, 2 cards to the center (this is the skat), then 4 cards to each player. If the dealer is the fourth player, they deal to each other player and sit out.


The skat is a set of two cards that can be used by the player who wins the bidding or auction. The bidding is a process of determining who will be the declarer, that is, the player who will play against the other two players (the defenders). The declarer also chooses the game type and the trump suit, which affect the value of the cards and the points scored.


The game type can be one of three options: suit, grand, or null. In suit games, one of the four suits is chosen as trump, and the four jacks are always the highest trumps. In grand games, only the four jacks are trumps. In null games, there are no trumps and no card points, and the declarer's aim is to lose all tricks.


The game value is calculated by multiplying the base value of the game type by various factors, such as matadors (the number of consecutive top trumps held or missing), hand (whether the skat was used or not), schneider (whether one side took at least 90 points), schwarz (whether one side took all tricks), ouvert (whether the declarer's cards were exposed), etc.


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The declarer's goal is to take at least 61 points in tricks (or more depending on the bid) in suit or grand games, or to lose all tricks in null games. The defenders' goal is to prevent that. Each trick consists of three cards, one played by each player in clockwise order. The first player can play any card, and then each player must follow suit if possible. If not, they can play any card. The trick is won by the highest trump card played, or if no trump was played, by the highest card of the suit led.


At the end of the game, the points are counted and scored. The declarer wins if they fulfill their contract (i.e., take enough points or lose all tricks), and loses otherwise. The score is calculated by multiplying the game value by a positive or negative factor depending on whether the declarer won or lost. The score is added to or subtracted from the declarer's cumulative score, while the defenders' scores remain unchanged.


History of Skat




The early history of Skat is not fully documented, but it is generally agreed that it was derived from older card games such as Schafkopf, Tarot, and L'Hombre. The name Skat comes from the Italian word scarto, meaning "discard", which refers to the two cards set aside at the beginning of each round. The first book on Skat rules was published in 1848 by J.F.L. Hempel, one of the game's inventors. Skat became popular across Germany and other parts of Europe, especially among students and intellectuals. Skat was also introduced to the United States by German immigrants, where it was known as Scat or American Skat. However, it never gained the same popularity as in its homeland. Skat rules have changed over time, with different variants and regional preferences emerging. The first attempt to standardize the rules was made by a congress of Skat players in Altenburg in 1886. Since then, several official revisions have been made, the most recent being in 1999. Today, Skat is governed by the International Skat Players Association (ISPA), which organizes tournaments and championships around the world.


Skat Rules and Tips




Skat is a complex and challenging game that requires a lot of practice and skill to master. Here are some basic rules and tips to help you get started.


How to deal and bid in Skat




The dealer shuffles the cards and the player to their right cuts the deck. The dealer then deals 10 cards to each player in batches of 3-4-3, leaving two cards face down on the table as the skat. The dealer sits out for this round and the player to their left is the forehand, who starts the bidding. The bidding is a process of determining who will be the declarer, i.e., the player who will play alone against the other two players (the defenders). The declarer also gets to pick up the skat and choose the game type and the trump suit.


The bidding is done by announcing numbers that represent the minimum game value that the player is willing to play for. The game value depends on several factors, such as the game type, the trump suit, the number of top trumps held or missing (matadors), and whether certain conditions are met (such as taking all tricks or playing with an open hand). The lowest possible bid is 18, which corresponds to a suit game with clubs as trumps and one matador.


The bidding starts with the forehand and the middlehand (the player to their left). The middlehand either passes or makes a bid, such as 18. The forehand either passes or accepts the bid by saying "yes". If the forehand accepts, the middlehand can either pass or raise the bid by announcing a higher number, such as 20. The forehand can then either pass or accept again, and so on. The bidding ends when one of them passes.


The winner of this first bidding phase then competes with the rearhand (the player to their left) in a similar way. The rearhand can either pass or make a bid that is higher than or equal to the previous bid. The winner of this second bidding phase becomes the declarer and picks up the skat.


How to choose the game type and the trump suit




The declarer can choose from three game types: suit, grand, or null. In suit games, one of the four suits is chosen as trump, and all four jacks are also trumps, ranking above the ace of trumps. The order of trumps is: jack of clubs, jack of spades, jack of hearts, jack of diamonds, ace, 10, king, queen, 9, 8, 7 of trumps. The order of non-trump suits is: ace, 10, king, queen, 9, 8, 7. The base value of a suit game is 9 for clubs, 10 for spades, 11 for hearts, and 12 for diamonds.


In grand games, only the four jacks are trumps, ranking in the same order as above. The order of non-trump suits is: ace, 10, king, queen, 9, 8, 7. The base value of a grand game is 24. In null games, there are no trumps and no card points. The order of suits is: ace, king, queen, jack, 10, 9, 8, 7. The declarer's goal is to lose all tricks. The base value of a null game is 23, or 35 if played with an open hand (ouvert). The declarer can al


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